Kristine Schad Eebes, M.S.

Conservation & Science
AZA Population Management Center

Areas of Expertise

  • Demographic and genetic management of small populations
  • Pedigree analysis and development of pedigree assumptions
  • Population management of group-living species


Kristine has been director of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Population Management Center (PMC) since 2017. Her population biology work focuses on conducting demographic and genetic analyses and preparing Breeding and Transfer Plans with the PMC team for more than 500 species. In addition to advising zoo and aquarium population managers, Kristine directs daily PMC operations, supervises other PMC staff, and contributes to the development of software and methodologies relating to the management of small populations.

Prior to joining the PMC, Kristine was a population biologist for the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA), as well as a population biologist and studbook analyst for the PMC, after beginning her population biology career as a Dr. Scholl Science Fellow with Lincoln Park Zoo’s Alexander Center for Applied Population Biology. Kristine is also the co-chair of the Amphibian Population Management Committee for the Amphibian Ark, a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquarium (WAZA) Committee on Population Management, and an advisor to AZA’s Animal Population Management Committee.


  • Gray, S. M., Parsons, A. W., Andrews, J. E., Schad Eebes, K., Faust, L. J., & Che-Castaldo, J. (2023). Institutional networks in cooperative population management: Exploring patterns in transfer fulfillment. Zoo Biology, Early View.
  • Gray, S.M., Faust, L.J., Kuykendall, N.A., Bladow, R.A., Schad Eebes, K., Che-Castaldo, J.P. (2022). Reasons for unfulfilled breeding and transfer recommendations in zoos and aquariums. Zoo Biology. 41(2), 143-156.
  • Che-Castalado, J., Gray, S.M., Rodriguez-Clark, K., Schad Eebes, K., Faust, L. (2021). Expected demographic and genetic declines not found in most zoo and aquarium populations. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 19(8), 435-442.
  • Schad, K. (2018). Advanced Population Biology: Beyond Breeding and Transfer Plans. Animal Keepers’ Forum. The Journal of the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. 45(11-12), 340-342.
  • Schad, K., Thompson, S.D., Wiese, R.J. (2018). History of Population Biology in AZA. Animal Keepers’ Forum. The Journal of the American Association of Zoo Keepers, Inc. 45(11-12), 306-308.
  • Lynch, C. and Schad, K.   2018. Contributing Editors. Animal Keeper’s Forum: Special Edition Dedicated to Population Management, 45(11-12): 299-347.
  • Hvilsom, C., Pereboom, Z., and Schad, K. 2016. Banking on our future: A new centrally organized biobank will be an invaluable resource for the EAZA community. ZooQuaria. 94:34.
  • Walker, S., Forsyth, S., Felter, Y., Cowl, V., and Schad, K. 2016. Managing the numbers: The use of contraception within zoo collections has been made easier by EGZAC, whose ongoing research is becoming an invaluable resource for the entire community. ZooQuaria. 94:16-17.
  • Lynch, C., Schad, K., and Ford, C. 2016. Population Q & A: The work of a population biologist is sometimes misunderstood; here we clarify some of the most common misconceptions. ZooQuaria. 94:32-33.
  • Garcia, G. and Schad, K. 2015. Long-term mountain chicken frog plans. ZooQuaria. 91: 7.
  • Jiménez-Mena, B., Schad, K., Hanna, N. and Lacy, R. C. 2015. Pedigree analysis for the genetic management of group-living species. Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1002/ece3.1831.
  • Olea-Popelka, F., Ferrie, G. M., Morris, C., Pessier, A. P., Schad, K., Stamper, M. A., Gagliardo, R., Koutsos, E. and Valdes, E. V. 2014. Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition. Zoo Biology, 33: 586–591.
  • Francescon, C., Jeggo, D., and Schad, K. 2014. Mauritius Pink Pigeons Escaping Extinction. ZooQuaria. 86: 23-24.
  • Ferrie, G. M., Alford, V. C., Atkinson, J., Baitchman, E., Barber, D., Blaner, W. S., Crawshaw, G., Daneault, A., Dierenfeld, E., Finke, M., Fleming, G., Gagliardo, R., Hoffman, E. A., Karasov, W., Klasing, K., Koutsos, E., Lankton, J., Lavin, S. R., Lentini, A., Livingston, S., Lock, B., Mason, T., McComb, A., Morris, C., Pessier, A. P., Olea-Popelka, F., Probst, T., Rodriguez, C., Schad, K., Semmen, K., Sincage, J., Stamper, M. A., Steinmetz, J., Sullivan, K., Terrell, S., Wertan, N., Wheaton, C. J., Wilson, B. and Valdes, E. V. 2014. Nutrition and health in amphibian husbandry. Zoo Biology, 33: 485–501.
  • Ogden, R., and Schad, K. 2014. The science of species conservation. ZooQuaria. 85: 16-17.
  • Schad, K., editor. 2010. Amphibian data entry guidelines. Amphibian Ark,; 8 p.
  • Schad, K., editor. 2008. Amphibian population management guidelines. Amphibian Ark Amphibian Population Management Workshop; 2007 December 10-11; San Diego, CA, USA. Amphibian Ark,; 31 p.
  • Eifler, D., Schad, K., Ray, J., and McInnes, L. 2004. Anti-predator behavior and habitat selection for three nonindigenous Hemidactylus geckos in Florida. Herpetological Review 35(4):391-392.
  • Earnhardt, J.M., Thompson, S.D. and Schad, K. 2004. Strategic planning for captive population: projecting changes in genetic diversity. Animal Conservation, 7: 9-16.
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