Rat eating seeds on a log

Davee Center for Epidemiology

One Health is a collaborative scientific effort focused on understanding the inextricable connection between people, animals, plants, and our shared environment—and optimizing the health of all of them.

For almost two decades, the Davee Center for Epidemiology has studied wildlife disease, stress, and physiology in zoo and wild populations to provide us with the tools to protect and conserve animal and human health.

Along with the Urban Wildlife Institute, the Davee Center acts as the hub of Lincoln Park Zoo’s research work on zoonotic disease and The Davee Center was created in 2001 by the Davee Foundation, honoring the legacy of its founders: Ruth and Ken Davee. The breadth and depth of its work continues to make a strong impact on the zoo, Chicago communities, and scientific partners working to understand and mitigate the threats of zoonotic disease.

Areas of Focus

Urban Wildlife Research

Some species persist and even thrive in urban environments, while others are less successful. Understanding how urbanization impacts the health of urban animals, plants, people, and ecosystems can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and allow for human-wildlife coexistence in cities around the world.


Chicago Rat Project

Lincoln Park Zoo researchers are studying the ecology and health of Chicago’s rats to help prevent human-wildlife conflict and reduce public health risks from rat infestations.


Global Field Research

Davee Center scientists have designed field-friendly research tools that continue to help us investigate environmental impacts on wild populations. Past projects ranged from improving reproductive success for reintroduced black-footed ferrets in North America to evaluating environmental and social stressors for mountain gorillas in Rwanda’s Volcanos National Park.


From 2001-2020, the Davee Center also did important work in the field of endocrinology. The center’s research examined stress and reproductive hormones in wildlife to understand the relationship between an animal’s hormones, behavior, and environment. This work helped Lincoln Park Zoo and partners around the country better understand the physiology of both zoo and wild animals and improve conservation outcomes and management strategies.

Davee Center scientists studied the endocrinology of more than 100 species, ranging from cephalopods to black rhinos. They also developed new minimally-invasive techniques to monitor wildlife health and stress, including swabbing amphibians for hormones and pathogens. The knowledge gained helps inform our One Health research in Chicago and around the world.



  • Merrill, L., Ospina, E. A., Santymire, R. M., & Benson, T. J. 2020. Egg Incubation Temperature Affects Development of Innate Immune Function in Nestling American Robins (Turdus migratorius). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 93(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1086/705361
  • Murray, M. J., Young, M. A., & Santymire, R. M. 2020. Use of the ACTH challenge test to identify the predominant glucocorticoid in the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Conservation Physiology, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coz116
  • Murray, M. H., Sánchez, C. A., Becker, D. J., Byers, K. A., Worsley‐Tonks, K. E., & Craft, M. E. 2019. City sicker? A meta-analysis of wildlife health and urbanization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 17(10), 575–583. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2126
  • Potratz, E. J., Brown, J. S., Gallo, T., Anchor, C., & Santymire, R. M. 2019. Effects of demography and urbanization on stress and body condition in urban white-tailed deer. Urban Ecosystems, Early View. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-00856-8
  • Santymire, R. M., Lonsdorf, E. V., Lynch, C. M., Wildt, D. E., Marinari, P. E., Kreeger, J. S., & Howard, J. G. 2019. Inbreeding causes decreased seminal quality affecting pregnancy and litter size in the endangered black-footed ferret. Animal Conservation, 22(4), 331–340. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12466
  • Allocca, M., Corrigan, J. J., Mazumder, A., Fake, K. R., & Samson, L. D. 2019. Inflammation, Necrosis and RIP3 are Key Mediators of AAG-dependent Alkylation-induced Retinal Degeneration. Science Signaling, 12(568), eaau9216. https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aau9216
  • Santymire, R. M., Manjerovic, M. B., & Sacerdote-Velat, A. 2018. A novel method for the measurement of glucocorticoids in dermal secretions of amphibians. Conservation Physiology, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coy008
  • Murray, M.H., Kidd, A., Curry, S., Hepinstall-Cymerman, J., Welch, C.N., Hernandez, S.M. 2018. From wetland specialist to hand-fed: shifts in diet and condition in a recently urbanized wading bird. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 373(1745), 20170100
  • Fake, K. R. 2018. Importance of nutritional status of passerines to immunity and disease dynamics. Michigan State University, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global
  • Schell, C. J., Young, J. K., Lonsdorf, E. V., Mateo, J. M., & Santymire, R. M. 2018. It takes two: Evidence for reduced sexual conflict over parental care in a biparental canid. Journal of Mammalogy, 99(1), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyx150
  • Murray, C. M., Stanton, M. A., Wellens, K. R., Santymire, R. M., Heintz, M. R., & Lonsdorf, E. V. 2018. Maternal effects on offspring stress physiology in wild chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 80(1), n/a-n/a. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22525
  • Buxton, V. L., Santymire, R. M., & Benson, T. J. 2018. Mixed effects of urbanization on density, nest survival, and nestling corticosterone of a generalist passerine. Ecosphere, 9(12), e02517. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2517
  • Schell, C. J., Young, J. K., Lonsdorf, E. V., Santymire, R. M., & Mateo, J. M. 2018. Parental habituation to human disturbance over time reduces fear of humans in coyote offspring. Ecology and Evolution, Early View. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4741
  • Cleveland, C.A., Garrett, K.B., Cozad, R.A., Williams, B.M., Murray, M.H. and Yabsley, M.J. 2018. The wild world of Guinea Worms: A review of the genus Dracunculus in wildlife. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 7(3): 289-300
  • Sapp, S.G.H, Gupta, P., Martin, M.K., Murray, M.H., Niedringhaus, K.D., Madeleine A. Pfaff, M.A., Yabsley, M.J. 2017. Beyond the Raccoon Roundworm: The natural history of non- raccoon Baylisascaris species in the New World. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 6(2), 85-99
  • Schell, C. J., Young, J. K., Lonsdorf, E. V., Mateo, J. M., & Santymire, R. M. 2017. Investigation of techniques to measure cortisol and testosterone concentrations in coyote hair. Zoo Biology. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21359
  • Allocca, M., Corrigan, J. J., Fake, K. R., Calvo, J. A., & Samson, L. D. 2017. PARP inhibitors protect against sex- and AAG-dependent alkylation-induced neural degeneration. Oncotarget, 8(40), 68707–68720
  • Murray, M.H., St. Clair., C.C. 2017. Predictable features attract coyotes to residential yards. The Journal of Wildlife Management. Early View doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21223
  • Murray, M.H., Fassina, S., Hopkins, J.B. III, Whittington, J., St. Clair, C.C. 2017. Seasonal and individual variation in the use of rail-associated food attractants by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in a National Park. PLoS ONE, 12(5), e0175658
  • St. Clair, C.C., Found, R., Gangadharan, A., and Murray, M*. 2016. Behavior-based design and management for reserves and corridors. In: Conservation Behaviour, Berger-Tal, O., and Saltz, D. eds. *Authors following C.C. St. Clair in alphabetical order
  • Eckardt W, Stoinski TS, Rosenbaum S, Umuhoza MR, & Santymire R. 2016. Characterizing stress physiology in Virunga mountain gorillas. Conservation Physiology, 4, cow029
  • Rosenbaum S, Hirwa JP, Silk JB, Vigilant L, & Stoinski TS. 2016. Infant mortality risk and paternity certainty are associated with postnatal maternal behavior toward adult male mountain gorillas. PLoS One, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147441
  • Santymire, R. M., Misek, S., Gossett, J., Kamhout, M., Chatroop, E., & Rafacz, M. 2016. Male behaviours signal the female’s reproductive state in a pair of black rhinoceros housed at Lincoln Park Zoo. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 4(1), 30–37
  • Rosenbaum S, Vecellio V, & Stoinski TS. 2016. Observations of severe and lethal coalitionary attacks in wild mountain gorillas. Scientific Reports, 6, 37018
  • Schell, C. J., Young, J. K., Lonsdorf, E. V., Mateo, J. M., & Santymire, R. M. 2016. Olfactory attractants and parity affect prenatal androgens and territoriality of coyote breeding pairs. Physiology & Behavior, 165, 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.06.038
  • Calvo, J. A., Allocca, M., Fake, K. R., Muthupalani, S., Corrigan, J. J., Bronson, R. T., & Samson, L. D. 2016. Parp1 protects against Aag-dependent alkylation-induced nephrotoxicity in a sex-dependent manner. Oncotarget, 7(29), 44950–44965
  • Sacerdote-Velat A, Manjerovic MB, and Santymire R. 2016. Preliminary survey of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occurrence on an urban-rural gradient in the Chicago region of Illinois, USA. Herpetological Review 47(1): 57-58
  • Howard, J. G., Lynch, C., Santymire, R. M., Marinari, P. E., & Wildt, D. E. 2016. Recovery of gene diversity using long-term cryopreserved spermatozoa and artificial insemination in the endangered black-footed ferret. Animal Conservation, 19(2), 102–111
  • Rosenbaum S, Hirwa JP, Silk JB, & Stoinski TS. 2016. Relationships between adult male and maturing mountain gorillas persist across developmental stages and social upheaval. Ethology, 122, 134-150
  • Murray, M.H., Hill, J., Whyte, P., and St. Clair C.C. 2016. Urban compost attracts coyotes, contains toxins, and may promote disease in urban-adapted wildlife. EcoHealth 13: 285–292
  • Murray, M.H., Becker, D.J., Hall, R.J., Hernandez, S.M. 2016. Wildlife health and supplemental feeding: a review and management recommendations. Biological Conservation 204: 163–174
  • Green ML, Monick K, Manjerovic MB, Novakofski J, and Mateus-Pinilla N. 2015. Communication stations: camera traps reveal river otter (Lontra canadensis) behavior and activity patterns at latrines. Journal of Ethology 33(3):225-234. doi:10.1007/s10164-015-0435-7
  • Murray, M., Cembrowski, A., Latham, D., Pruss, S., and St. Clair, C. C. 2015. Greater consumption of protein-poor anthropogenic food by urban relative to rural coyotes increases diet breadth and potential for human-wildlife conflict. Ecography 38: 1235-1242
  • Rosenbaum, S., Maldonado-Chaparro, AA., Stoinski, T.S. 2015. Group structure predicts variation in proximity relationships between male-female and male-infant pairs of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Primates, 1–12
  • Murray, M.H. and St. Clair, C.C. 2015. Individual flexibility in nocturnal activity reduces probability of road mortality for an urban carnivore. Behavioural Ecology 26:1520-1527
  • Rosenbaum S, Hirwa JP, Silk JB, Vigilant L, & Stoinski TS. 2015. Male rank, not paternity, predicts male–immature relationships in mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei. Animal Behaviour 104, 13–24
  • Murray, M. Edwards, M.E., Abercrombie, B., and St. Clair, C. C. 2015. Poor health is associated with use of anthropogenic resources in an urban carnivore. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 282:20150009
  • Rog, J. E., Lukas, K. E., & Wark, J. D. 2015. Social and environmental influences on pacing in a female Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 3(4), 151–156
  • Manjerovic, M.B., Green, M.L., Miller, A.N. et al. 2015. Trash to treasure: assessing viability of wing biopsies for use in bat genetic research. Conservation Genetics Resources 7:325-327 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12686-014-0417-z/fulltext.html
  • Manjerovic MB and Waterman JM. 2015. ‘Failure to launch’: is there a reproductive cost to males living at home?. Journal of Mammalogy 96(1):144-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyu015
  • Freeman, E.W., J. M. Meyer, J. Bird, J. Addendorf, B. A. Schulte, R. M. Santymire. 2014. Impacts of environmental pressures on the reproductive health of subpopulations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Conservation Physiology 2:Doi:10.1093/conphys/cot034
  • Freeman, E.W., J. M. Meyer, J. Addendorf, B. A. Schulte, R. M. Santymire. 2014. Age and fecal gonadal metabolite concentrations affect scraping behavior of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Journal of Mammalogy 95:340-348
  • Chosy, J., Wilson, M., & Santymire, R. 2014. Behavioral and physiological responses in felids to exhibit construction. Zoo Biology, 33(4), 267–274. https://doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21142
  • Wark, J.D., Kuhar, C.W., Lukas, K.E. 2014. Behavioral thermoregulation in a group of zoo-housed colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza). Zoo Biology, 33: 257-266
  • Jacobs RM, Ross SR, Wagner KE, Leahy M, Meiers ST, Santymire RM 2014. Evaluating the physiological and behavioral response of a male and female gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during an introduction. Zoo Biology, 33(5), 394–402
  • Reichert-Stewart, J., R. M. Santymire, D. Armstrong, T. M. Harrison and J. R. Herrick. 2014. Fecal endocrine monitoring of reproduction in female snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Theriogenology 82:17-26
  • Green ML, Manjerovic MB, Mateus-Pinilla N, and Novakofski J. 2014. Genetic assignment tests reveal dispersal of white-tailed deer: implications for chronic wasting disease. Journal of Mammalogy 95(3):646-654
  • Markham, A.C., R.M. Santymire, E.V. Lonsdorf, M.R. Heintz, I. Lipende, and C.M. Murray. 2014. Rank Effects on Social Stress in Lactating Chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 87:195-202
  • Santymire, R.M., H. Branvold-Faber and P.E. Marinari. 2014. Recovery of the Black-Footed Ferret. In: Biology and Diseases of the Ferret 3rd Edition (J.G. Fox and R.P. Marini, eds.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: 219-231
  • Hunt, V., Magle, S., Vargas, C., Brown, A., Lonsdorf, E., Sacerdote, A., Sorley, E., Santymire, R. 2014. Survival, abundance, and capture rate of eastern cottontail rabbits in an urban park. Urban Ecosystems 17(2): 547-560
  • Daudi, M., R. Santymire, F. Lankester and J. Buza. 2014. The impact of malignant catarrhal fever virus challenge on physiological stress in cattle. American Journal of Research Communication 2(3):13-29
  • Manjerovic MB, Green ML, Mateus-Pinilla N, and Novakofski J. 2014. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, available online: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.09.011
  • Green ML, Novakofski J, Green R, Manjerovic MB, and Mateus-Pinilla N. 2014. The scene of the crime: classroom integration of biosafety, microscopy and forensics. The American Biology Teacher 76:9
  • Rafacz, M. and R. Santymire. 2014. Using odor cues to elicit a behavioral and hormonal response in zoo-housed African wild dogs. Zoo Biology 33:144-149
  • Rafacz, M., Margulis, S., Santymire, R. 2013. Hormonal and behavioral patterns of reproduction in female hylobatids. Animal Reproduction Science 137(1-2): 103-112
  • Green ML, Ting T-F, Manjerovic MB, Mateus-Pinilla N, and Novakofski J. 2013. Noninvasive alternatives for DNA collection from threatened rodents. Natural Science 5:18-26
  • Howell-Stephens, J., Bernier, D., Brown, J., Mulkerin, D., Sanytmire, R.M. 2013. Using non-invasive methods to characterize gonadal hormonal patterns of southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus) housed in North Americans zoo. Animal Reproduction Science 138:314-323
  • Schell, C.J, J.M. Young, E.V. Lonsdorf and R.M. Santymire. 2013. Validating the use of non-invasive techniques to monitor stress responses in coyotes (Canis latrans). Journal of Mammalogy 94(5):1131-1140
  • Murray, C.M., Heintz, M.R., Lonsdorf, E.V., Parr, L.A. and Santymire, R.M. 2013. Validation of a field technique and characterization of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 75(1):57-64
  • Ganswindt, A., Brown, J., Freeman, E., Kouba, A., Penfold, L., Santymire, R., Vick, M., Wielebnowski, N., Willis, E. and Milnes, M. 2012. . International Society for Wildlife Endocrinology: the future of endocrine measures for reproductive science, animal welfare, and conservation biology. Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.1181
  • Santymire, R., E.W. Freeman, E. Lonsdorf, M. Heintz, and D. Armstrong. 2012. Assessment of adrenocortical activity after ACTH challenge in diverse African wildlife species. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(2): 99-108
  • Howell-Stephens, J., Bernier, D., Brown, J., Mulkerin, D., and Santymire, R.M. 2012. Characterizing adrenocortical activity in zoo-housed southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus). General and Comparative Endocrinology 178(1): 64-74
  • Santymire, R.M., Meyer, J., and Freeman, E.W. 2012. Characterizing Sleep Behavior of the Wild Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis). Sleep 35(11):1569-1574
  • Adkin, A., D. Bernier and R.M. Santymire. 2012. Characterizing the reproductive biology and behavior of the zoo-housed Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana) using non-invasive techniques. Theriogenology 78: 483-494
  • Rafacz, M., S. Margulis, and R. Santymire. 2012. Hormonal Correlates of Paternal Care in Three Hylobatid Species. American Journal of Primatology 74(3): 247-260
  • Manjerovic MB and Waterman JM. 2012. Immunological sex differences in socially promiscuous African ground squirrels. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38524. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038524
  • Scantlebury M, Danek-Gontard MC, Bateman PW, Bennett NC, Manjerovic MB, Joubert KE, and Waterman JM. 2012. Seasonal patterns of body temperature daily rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris. PLoS ONE 7(4): e36053. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036053
  • Santymire, R.M., S.M. Wisely, T.M. Livieri and J.G. Howard. 2012. Using canine width to determine age in the black-footed ferret Mustela nigripes.. Small Carnivore Conservation 46:17-21, June Issue
  • Melber, L., Santymire, R.M. and Bergren, R. 2011. Beyond Borders: Zoo as Training Location for Wildlife Biologists. Journal of Museum Education 36(1): 29-43
  • Joubert KE, Serfontein T, Scantlebury M, Manjerovic MB, Bateman PW, Bennett NC, and Waterman JM. 2011. Determination of an optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine for anaesthesia in the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 82:94-96
  • Poessel, S. D. Biggins, R. Santymire, T. Livieri, K. Cooks and L. Angeloni. 2011. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret. General and Comparative Endocrinology 172:526-533
  • Loeding, E., D. Bernier, J. Thomas and R.M. Santymire. 2011. Investigating the impacts of a female to female introduction on hormone levels in the sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 14: 220-246
  • Rosenbaum S, Silk JB, & Stoinski TS. 2011. Male-immature relationships in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 71, 1-10
  • Santymire, R.M., J.L. Brown, R.C. Santymire, R.A. Bauer, D.E. Wildt, J.G. Howard. Online. 2011. Reproductive gonadal activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) assessed by fecal steroid analyses. Animal Reproduction Science
  • Fuller, G., Margulis, S.W. and Santymire, R. 2011. The effectiveness of indigestible markers for identifying individual animal feces and their prevalence of use in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 30(4):379-398
  • Santymire, R.M., Fa, J.E., Funk, S.M., O’Connell, D. 2011. Zoo Conservation Biology. Zoo Biology 31(1): 117-118
  • Pulotrak,E., Nadler, Y., Travis, D., Glaser, A., McNamara, T., Mehta, S.D. 2011. Zoological institution participation in a West Nile virus surveillance system: Implications for public health. Public Health, Vol 125
  • Landolfi JA, Mikota SK, Chosy J, and Terio KA. 2010. Comparison of systemic immune responses in Mycobacterium spp. Seropositive and seronegative Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). The Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 41(3):445-455
  • Santymire, R.M., and Armstrong, D. 2010. Development of a field-friendly technique for fecal steroid extraction and storage using the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Zoo Biology, 28, 1-14
  • Lembo, T., Hampson, K., Kaare, M.T., Ernest, E., Knobel, D., Kazwala, R.R., Haydon, D.T., and Cleaveland, S. 2010. The Feasibility of Canine Rabies Elimination in Africa: Dispelling Doubts with Data. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4(2)
  • Manjerovic MB, Waterman JM, Hoffman EA, and Parkinson CL. 2009. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci in the Cape ground squirrel, Xerus inauris, and their cross-utility in other species. In: Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009- 30 April 2009. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9:1375-1379
  • Rafacz, M., Margulis, S., and Santymire, R. 2009. Comparing the role of androgens in paternal care between gibbon species. Gibbon Journal 5: 74-80
  • Manjerovic MB, Bohall Wood P, and Edwards JW. 2009. Mast and weather influences on population trends of a species of concern: the Allegheny woodrat. American Midland Naturalist, 162:52-61
  • Stoinski TS, Rosenbaum S, Ngaboyamahina T, Vecellio V, Ndagijimana F, & Fawcett K. 2009. Patterns of male reproductive behavior in multimale groups of mountain gorillas: examining theories of reproductive skew. Behaviour, 146, 1193-1215
  • Stoinski TS, Vecellio V, Ngaboyamahina T, Ndagijimana F, Rosenbaum S, & Fawcett K. 2009. Proximate factors influencing dispersal decisions in male mountain gorillas. Animal Behaviour 77, 1155-1164
  • Chosy, J., Travis, D., and Nadler, Y. 2009. Zoos as disease sentinels: Piloting an avian influenza surveillance system in zoological institutions. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, 3(1):184
  • Travis, D., Lonsdorf, E.V., Mlengeya, T., Raphael, J. 2008. A science-based approach to managing disease risks for ape conservation. American Journal of Primatology, 70: 766-777
  • Wisely, S.M., Howard, J.G., Williams, S.A., Bain, O., Santymire, R.M., Bardsley, K.D., and Williams, E.S. 2008. An unidentified filarial species and its impact on fitness in wild populations of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44(1):53-64
  • Wisely, S.M., Santymire, R.M., Livieri, T.M., Mueting, S.A., Wildt, D.E., and Howard, J.G. 2008. Genotypic and phenotypic consequences of reintroduction history: case study of the black-footed ferret. Conservation Genetics 9(2):389-399
  • Manjerovic MB, Waterman JM, Kinahan AA, Bennett NC, and Bateman PW. 2008. Structure and allometry of genitalia in males and females of a social African ground squirrel with high promiscuity. Journal of Zoology, 275:375-380
  • Barbiers, R.B. 2007. Disease Risk Communication and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza. Animal Keeper’s Forum, 34: 459-47
  • Santymire, R.M., P.E. Marinari, J.S. Kreeger, D.E. Wildt and J.G. Howard. 2007. Slow Cooling Prevents Cold-Induced Damage to Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity in the Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes). Reproduction, Fertility and Development 19:652-663
  • Lacasse, C., Terio, K., Kinsel, M.J., Farina, L.L., Travis, D.A., Greenwald, R., Lyashchenko, K.P., Miller, M. and Gamble, K.C. 2007. Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 38(1): 101-107
  • O’Donnell, C.R. and Travis, D. 2007. West Nile Virus. International Zoo Yearbook, 41: 75-84
  • Pukazhenthi, B., R. Santymire, A. Crosier, J.G. Howard, D. E. Wildt. 2006. Challenges in cryopreserving endangered mammal spermatozoa: morphology and the value of acrosomal integrity as markers of cryo-survival. Spermatology. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl, Nottingham: Nottingham Press, 65:433-446
  • Cranfield, M., Gaffikin, L., Minnis, R., Nutter, F., Rwego, I., Travis, D. and Whittier, C. 2006. Clinical Response to Decision Tree for the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringeii) as a Model for Great Apes. American Journal of Primatology: Special Topics Issue, 68: 909-927
  • Santymire, R.M., Marinari, P.E., Kreeger, J.S., Wildt, D.E., and Howard, J.G. 2006. Determining semen osmolality and effect of medium osmolality on sperm viability in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Cryobiology 54:37-50
  • Travis, D.A., Hungerford, L., Engel, G.A., and Jones-Engel, L. 2006. Disease Risk Analysis: A Tool for Primate Conservation Planning and Decision Making. American Journal of Primatology: Special Topics Issue, 68: 855-867
  • Schmidt, D.A., Travis, D.A. and Williams, J. 2006. Guidelines for creating a food safety HACCP program in zoos or aquaria. Zoo Biology, 25(2): 125-135
  • Travis, D.A. and Barbiers, R.B. 2006. Impact of emerging and zoonotic disease on mammal management. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. In press
  • Engel, G., Hungerford, L.L., Jones-Engle, L., Travis, D.A., Eberle, R., Fuentes, A., Grant, R., Kyes, R., Schillaci, M., and the Macaque Risk Analysis Workshop Group. 2006. Risk Assessment: A Model for Predicting Cross-Species Transmission of Simian Foamy Virus from Macaques (M. fascicularis) to Humans at a Monkey Temple in Bali, Indonesia.. American Journal of Primatology: Special Topics Issue, 68: 934-94
  • Howard, J.G., R.M. Santymire, P.E. Marinari, J.S. Kreeger, L. Williamson and D.E. Wildt. 2006. Use of reproductive technology for black-footed ferret recovery. In: Recovery of the Black-Footed Ferret: Progress and Continuing Challenges (Eds., J.E. Roelle, B.J. Miller, J.L. Godbey and D.E. Biggins.). pp. 28-36. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5293, Reston, VA
  • Polasky, S., Nelson, E., Lonsdorf, E.V., Fackler, P. and Starfield, T. 2005. Conserving species in a working landscape: efficient land use with biological and economic objectives. Ecological Applications, 15: 1387-1401
  • Travis, D.A., Gamble, K., Ross, M. and Barbiers, R. 2005. Development of a tool for assessing and managing the risk of avian mycobacteriosis during avian translocation. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • Wisely, S.M., Santymire, R.M., Livieri, T.M., Marinari, P.E., Kreeger, J.S., Wildt, D.E. and Howard, J.G. 2005. Environment influences morphology and development for in situ and ex situ populations of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Animal Conservation, 8: 321-328
  • Blasier, M. W., Travis, D. A. and Barbiers, R. 2005. Retrospective evaluation of measles antibody titers in vaccinated captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 36(2): 198-203
  • Ziccardi, M.H., Deem, S.L., Mazet, J.A.K. and Travis, D.A. 2005. The value of epidemiology in zoo and wildlife medicine. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. In press
  • Engel, G.A., Jones-Engel, L.E., Schillaci, M.A., Heidrich, J., Lee, B., Chalise, M.K., Keyes, R.C. and Travis, D. 2004. Considering human to primate transmission of measles virus through the prism of risk analysis. Proceedings of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy
  • Travis, D. and Jones-Engel, L.E. 2004. Disease risk analysis: a paradigm for using health-based data to affect primate conservation policy decision-making. Proceedings of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy, August
  • Miller, M., Travis, D., Barbiers, R., Murphy, H. and Ramer, J. 2004. Overview of the Occupational Primate Disease Safety Guidelines for Zoological Institutions. Proceedings of American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • Brown, J.L., Goritz, F., Pratt-Hawkes, N. Hermes, R., Galloway, M., Graham, L.H., Gray, C., Walker, S.L., Gomez, A., Moreland, R., Murray, S., Schmitt, D.L., Howard, J.G., Lehnhardt, J., Beck, B., Bellem, A., Montali, R. and Hildebrandt, T.B. 2004. Successful artificial insemination of an Asian elephant at the National Zoological Park. Zoo Biology, 23: 45-63
  • Engel, G.A., Jones-Engel, L.E., Schillaci, M.A., Rompis, A., Putra, A., Wandia, I., Suaryana, K.G., Fuentes, A., Keyes, R.C. and Travis, D. 2004. Wound care among monkey forest workers in Bali, Indonesia: analyzing the risk of simian foamy virus transmission. Proceedings of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy
  • Travis, D.A. and Miller, M. 2003. A Review of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and recommendations for surveillance of chronic wasting disease in zoos. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(2): 125-133
  • Travis, D.A., Barbiers, R.B. and Ziccardi, M.H. 2003. An overview of the national zoological tuberculosis monitoring system for hoofstock. Annual proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Minneapolis, Minnesota
  • Travis, D.A., Blasier, M. and Barbiers, R.B. 2003. Issues surrounding the use of the measles vaccine in captive western lowland gorillas at Lincoln Park Zoo. Proceedings of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) Symposium, Vina del Mar, Chile
  • Travis, D.A., McNamara, T., Glaser, A., Campbell, G. and Gubler, D. 2003. West Nile virus (U.S.) national zoo surveillance system: 2001-2003 results. Proceedings of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) Symposium, Vina del Mar, Chile
  • Manharth, A.L. and Travis, D.A. 2002. A medical review of 10 years of US Fish and Wildlife Service confiscations brought to Lincoln Park Zoo. Annual Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • Terio, K.A., Brown, J.L., Moreland, R. and Munson, L. 2002. Comparison of different drying and storage methods on quantifiable concentrations of fecal steroids in the cheetah. Zoo Biology, 21: 215-222
  • Vicari, A.S., Hueston, W.D. and Travis, D.A. 2002. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. International Handbook of Food borne Pathogens, Marcel Dekker, New York
  • Moreland, R.B., Richardson, M.E., Lamberski, N. and Long, J.A. 2001. Characterizing the reproductive physiology of the male southern black howler monkey, Alouatta caraya. Journal of Andrology, 22(3): 395-403
  • Cutraro, J. L., Ercelawn, A.Y.. Lebrun, E.G., Lonsdorf, E.W., Norton, H.A. and McKone, M.J. 1998. Importance of pollen and nectar in flower choice by hummingbird flower mites, Proctolaelaps kirmsei (Mesostigmata: Ascidae). International Journal of Acarology, 24: 345-351
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