Last Visit

Before he grew into an imposing zoo icon, gorilla Bushman was once a baby cared for by Winifred Hope in Cameroon.

Before he grew into an imposing zoo icon, gorilla Bushman was once a baby cared for by Winifred Hope Smith in Cameroon.

A Friend of the Zoo Remembers a Zoo Icon

The great gorilla has been gone since 1951, but visitors still come to Lincoln Park Zoo looking for Bushman. They ask caregivers about the famous ape, recalling a time when he was featured in “Life” magazine and amazed crowds who’d never seen an animal as imposing and wild.

While guests still pay tribute to Bushman, it’s rare for a visitor to have known him personally. But that was the case with Winifred Hope Smith, a 92-year-old who made the visit to Chicago’s free zoo from Ohio this March. Smith had helped raise Bushman along with her family when she was a little girl in Cameroon, a long time ago. Now she’d come to pay the great gorilla one last tribute.

Winifred Hope holds Bushman in Cameroon

Winifred Smith holds Bushman in Cameroon

A Far-Flung Childhood

Smith’s family was a missionary family living in Elat village in the south of Cameroon. Of five sisters, she was the only one born in the United States. “I felt very robbed about that until they had to start getting birth certificates,” she joked.

When Smith was around 8 years old, an American arrived with a baby gorilla. The man’s name was Julius Buck, and he’d been commissioned to bring gorillas back to the United States—an approach that’s no longer practiced today. As Smith remembered it, Buck left the gorilla with her father for safekeeping as he continued his expeditions around the region.

Bushman spent his nights in an enclosure outdoors and days with the family…including Smith, who was eager to give him the attention he needed. “He wanted to be held all the time,” she recalled. “If I put him down, he’d hold my foot as I walked around. Mother wasn’t happy with him being in the house, but he came in, although he wasn’t allowed to stay there.”

Bushman lived with the family for roughly a year, eating what they did, growing bigger as he matured. In 1930, the young gorilla made the big trip overseas. He ended up at Lincoln Park Zoo, moving into what’s now the Helen Brach Primate House. Bushman arrived to the acclaim of a city—and a country—for whom a live gorilla was still a rarity. He left behind a girl who was sad to see him go. “I felt terrible when he left,” Smith remembered.

Later Reunions

The pair did see one another again. Smith returned to the United States at 11, moving around between Indiana, South Carolina and later Tennessee’s Maryville College. In the 1940s, she made a trip to Chicago to visit the gorilla she’d known as a baby—one who’d since become a celebrity.

It wasn’t the best visit. Zoos today have a much deeper understanding of gorillas’ needs, providing them with naturalistic settings, nutritious diets and robust social groups. But while Bushman enjoyed care that was appropriate for the time, he still lived alone in a cage. “I felt a lot of affection for him when I visited,” she remembered. “I wasn’t sure if he wanted to be friends or not, though. I couldn’t tell if he recognized me.”

Smith’s visit to Regenstein Center for African Apes (RCAA) in March was a totally different experience. It was a family affair: she came accompanied by her daughter, Linda Hall, nephew Edward Guthmann, granddaughter Selita and great-grandaughter Nevaeh. The group saw Kwan’s family group and the zoo’s new gorilla bachelor troop, marveling at the immersive habitats and rich social behaviors on display. “It wasn’t like this,” Smith said, remembering her earlier encounter.

Hope and her family "pose" with Bushman. From left: daughter Lydia Hall, Hope, granddaughter Selita, great-grandaughter Nevaeh and nephew Edward Guthmann.

Smith and her family "pose" with Bushman. From left: daughter Linda Hall, Smith, granddaughter Selita, great-grandaughter Nevaeh and nephew Edward Guthmann.

More had changed than the housing for gorillas. As Steve Ross, Ph.D., director of the Lester E. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, shared, “Gorillas haven’t been moved from Africa to North America since 1975. Soon there won’t be any more African-born gorillas in zoos. All of RCAA’s gorillas were born right here in United States.”

Hope watches a gorilla forage at Regenstein Center for African Apes.

Smith watches a gorilla forage at Regenstein Center for African Apes.

Smith enjoyed her visit, following the gorillas as they browsed and played in their exhibits. She saw new mom Bana snuggling with baby Patty, an interaction that may have conjured memories from 80 years past. She finished her Chicago visit the next day with a trip to the Field Museum, stopping in for a little time with an old friend.

A Final Farewell

Sadly, Winifred Hope Smith passed away soon after her trip to Chicago. We offer our deepest sympathies to her family, including two children, four grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. Beyond that, though, we offer a deep appreciation for the chance to connect with a vital part of Lincoln Park Zoo’s history.

Zoos have changed a lot since Bushman’s arrival. Animals no longer arrive from Africa. But the dedication Smith showed to a little gorilla in her care is echoed in the full-time commitment of today’s professional caregivers. Even across the decades, animals can inspire us…something the visitors looking for Bushman know well.


by James Seidler • Published July 3, 2013

Learn More

Return to Cameroun
An excerpt from a documentary made by Smith's nephew, Edward Guthmann, chronicling his family's experience in—and return to—Cameroon.

The Summer 2013 Lincoln Park Zoo magazine casts a social spotlight on Lincoln Park Zoo, examining groups and behaviors throughout the zoo.

Social Studies
The Summer 2013 Lincoln Park Zoo magazine casts a social spotlight on Lincoln Park Zoo, examining groups and behaviors throughout the zoo.




I bought a box lot of toys at an auction and among the lot was this 4" figure of Bushman. i would like to know if it is very old.It's in great shape.He looks to be beating his chest and it has Field Museum embossed on the base. Has anyone there ever seen one of these? i would like any info you can give me Thanks

Interesting story! We aren't familiar with any specific toys, but Bushman was quite the celebrity. Perhaps our friends at the Field Museum would have more information?

As a child I remember school field trips to the zoo, church youth trips to Lincoln Zoo and the excitement of knowing we were going to visit Bushman. We were never disappointed. Thank you for bringing back rich memories of my childhood days. I visit the city of my birth often. I will visit the zoo with my grandchildren telling them the stories of when Granny would go there with her elementary school or her youth church group. I will tell them about Bushman.

Thanks for sharing your memories! We're glad you enjoyed the story, and we're also excited to hear that you'll share Bushman's legacy.

A nice video!

Such a lovely story.

Thank you--we're glad you enjoyed it!

Thank you for sharing this story. It is important to remember -- and teach -- the past, while we appreciate today. Bushman was one for the ages.

It's important to look back, even as we celebrate how zoos have improved and changed.

Post new comment

The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Allowed HTML tags: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img> <div>
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
  • You may insert videos with [video:URL]

More information about formatting options

By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.