Headstarting Smooth Green Snakes in Lake County
Lincoln Park Zoo has been working with the Lake County Forest Preserve District for several years now to restore smooth green snakes to the region. This season saw us expand our approach as we selected a new release site for snakes head-started at the zoo.
The goal of head-starting snakes at the zoo is to increase young animals’ body size before releasing them into the wild. A larger body size should improve young animals’ survival, offering increased energy reserves for catching food, reproducing, surviving winter and escaping predators.
The new release site has excellent habitat with all the components that smooth green snakes need: prairie, savanna, ponds and downed logs for overwintering. Despite the high quality habitat, there were no existing smooth green snake populations at the site. While they were historically present, they were lost when the region was converted to agricultural uses.
While the site has undergone extensive habitat restoration, it is difficult for a small snake to colonize restored habitat. Our telemetry study of smooth green snakes released last year demonstrated they travel only a few meters per day, possibly because their insect prey is so abundant.
We built two soft-release enclosures at the new site to house a total of 18 head-started snakes. The soft-release enclosures are intended to help the snakes acclimate to their new environment, allowing exposure to the weather, vegetation, scents and the native prey base while keeping the snakes safe from predators. We recorded which snakes went into each enclosure so we can monitor their survival over the next month. After one month of acclimation, they will be fully released into the environment.
We found some of last year’s head-started snakes less than one meter from the enclosures this year. This information may support the hypothesis that an acclimation period helps increase site fidelity, the chance that an animal will stay in the release site instead of wandering away.
As we released the snakes one by one into the enclosure, they quickly disappeared into the grasses. Smooth green snakes use cryptic coloration—camouflage—to help them evade predators and catch their food. A few of the snakes explored the enclosures and climbed to the tops of plants, where they basked in the sun. Other snakes quickly took cover under logs and dried grasses.
Our next challenge is to monitor snake survival during the soft-release period. Monitoring involves repeated surveys of the enclosure with the goal of finding all 18 snakes at each visit. Because the weather has been hot and dry, many snakes stay close to the soil where temperatures may be cooler, humidity is greater and prey is more abundant.
So far I have seen a few snakes at a time on subsequent visits. I typically find different individuals each time. I also set “camera traps” at the top of each enclosure to take photos and video when movement is detected.
To help individually identify snakes from the photos, I’m temporarily coloring a spot on their backs with different colors of permanent marker. This way, if a snake passes beneath a camera, I’ll know which snake it is as well as the date and time it was present. This will help detect snakes that may not always be visible when I’m surveying for them. The marker spots will only last until the snakes shed, but for the next month that should provide additional information on survival that might otherwise be missed.
This week, Lake County Forest Preserve District Wildlife Biologist Gary Glowacki and I installed a drift fence surrounding the enclosure area. A drift fence is a type of artificial corral that helps monitor animal movement, especially for reptiles and amphibians. Drift fences are typically placed in areas where migration movements of terrestrial animals are expected, for example, between a pond and a forest or between open prairie and oak savanna.
The drift fence will facilitate monitoring snake movements in different directions following their full release into the environment because it surrounds the release enclosure area. As snakes disperse toward different habitat features, such as savanna with more tree cover, we will learn about their habitat use and movements. We look forward to learning more to help this species' return to Lake County.
Allison Sacerdote, Ph.D., is a reintroduction biologist in Lincoln Park Zoo's Urban Wildlife Institute. She contributes to the partnership between Lincoln Park Zoo and the Lake County Forest Preserve to restore smooth green snakes to northern Illinois.