A cliff swallow begins building a nest beneath the bridge at Nature Boardwalk at Lincoln Park Zoo.
During the construction of Nature Boardwalk at Lincoln Park Zoo three years ago, special thought went into making the underside of its bridge suitable for nesting swallows. Swallow species throughout the world nest in manmade structures, from the undersides of bridges and rafters to barns and houses.
Because of their association with human-made habitats, this group of birds is considered “synanthropic”. Synanthropes are animals able to benefit from human-modified landscapes. At the Urban Wildlife Institute we’re very interested in how these species have adapted and evolved over time in response to increased urbanization and sprawl.
Research published this year by a University of Tulsa professor revealed that cliff swallows nesting under overpasses along highways have evolved shorter wings in response to traffic. Shorter wings increase maneuverability, which allows an individual to get out of the way of fast-moving cars.
At Nature Boardwalk the only vehicle a cliff swallow might have to contend with is my boat, which inches along at 6–7 mph—with the wind at my back. So I doubt this environment encourages much natural selection for shorter-winged individuals. Regardless, it’s fascinating how uniquely adapted this species can become in response to its environment.
The swallows have just started building nests here. Once finished, these will be completely enclosed except for small entrances on one side. Nests are primarily built of mud and are a little bit larger than a softball.
Come down to Nature Boardwalk to observe this urban-adapted species build nests and eventually rear some chicks! There are about six pairs, residing mostly along the south-facing portion of the bridge. They’re constantly fluttering about, so you really can’t miss them.
Mason Fidino is coordinator of wildlife management for Lincoln Park Zoo's Urban Wildlife Institute.